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Thermion Company: Abstracts of published papers (1994-1995)

Title:   Low Temperature Cascade Thermoelectric Coolers
Authors: Vladimir A. Semenyuk
Published: Proceedings of Second European Workshop on Thermoelectrics, 1995, Nancy, France, p. 136-140.
Abstract: This paper discusses one of the possibilities to widen the temperature range of TE cooling. The peculiarity and novelty of developed technology consist in application of highly effective single crystals, based on solid solutions of bismuth and antimony chalcogenides. Additionally discussed are some factors crucial to the development of efficient multi-stage TECs, including optimization technique, as well as technological problems. The results of development of low power 6-stage TEC on the temperature level near 150K are given.

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Title:   Thermoelectric Cooling of Semiconductor Lasers Under extreme Temperature Conditions
Authors: Vladimir A. Semenyuk, Tatyana V. Pilipenko
Published: Proceeding of the XIV International Conference on Thermoelectrics (ICT'95) St. Petersburg, Russia, p. 469-473
Abstract: The results of the development of thermoelectric cooling devices (TCD) for cooling semiconductor lasers and light-emitting diodes at high ambient temperatures are given. The particular case of TCD application as a part of fiber-optic module, used for research of Earth deep boreholes, where the temperature can reach 180C, is discussed in detail.

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Title:   Single Stage Thermoelectric Coolers with Temperature Difference of 80 K
Authors: V. A. Semenyuk, T.E. Svechnikova, L.D. Ivanova
Published: Proceeding of the XIV International Conference on Thermoelectrics (ICT'95) St. Petersburg, Russia, p. 485-489
Abstract: This paper represents the results of practical embodiment of the idea to improve a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) performance by using inhomogeneous TE materials. The limit performance of a TEC with segmented and inhomogeneous TE legs is predicted and reproduced in miniature single stage TE coolers, having DTmax value in the region of 80 K.

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Title:   Miniature Thermoelectric Coolers for Semiconductor Lasers
Authors: Vladimir A. Semenyuk, Tatyana V. Pilipenko, Grant C.Albright, Leonid A. Ioffe, William H. Rolls
Published: Proceedings of XIII International Conference on Thermoelectrics (ICT'94), 1994, Kansas City, MO USA, p. 150-153
Abstract: The problem of matching thermoelectric coolers and semiconductor lasers with respect to heat flow densities and electrical currents is discussed. It is shown that the solution of this problem is accomplished by the reduction of thermoelement dimensions to the submilimeter level. Assembled with extruded thermoelectric materials , miniature coolers with thermoelement length as short as 0.1mm and cross-section of 0.2x0.2mm2 are demonstrated. Using 0.5mm thick aluminum ceramic plates, the overallheight of these miniature coolers can be as low as 1.1mm. The devices are designed for cooling and thermally stabilizing miniature optoelectronic elements, especially semiconductor lasers. The results of device testing over a wide range of temperature and heat loads are given. This novel approach in thermoelectric cooler design represents a new step in miniaturization and reduced current requirements, with little or no loss in maximum attainable temperature difference. A DTmax of 68 K is demonstrated with input current of 200mA. Due to the small thermoelement length, extremely large heat flow densities at cold junctions are practical (up to 100W/cm2 at DT=0), making these devices ideal for heat intensive local sources such as injection laser diodes. Due to the extremely small sizes, these coolers have a high speed of response where a DT of 35 K in specimens with the thermoelement length of 0.1mm is approximately 150 millliseconds. These micro coolers are ideal for use within the semiconductor device housing and under conditions where limitations of power, size, and electrical current predominate.

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Title:   Miniature Thermoelectric Coolers on Single Crystals of Solid Solutions of Bismuth and Antimony Chalcogenides
Authors: Vladimir A. Semenyuk , T.E. Svechnikova, L.D. Ivanova
Published: Proceedings of XIII International Conference on Thermoelectrics (ICT'94), 1994, Kansas City, MO USA, p. 157-160
Abstract: This paper discusses the advantages that can be achieved by replacing traditional zone-melted thermoelectric materials with single crystals of solid solutions of Bismuth and Antimony chalcogenides in miniature thermoelectric coolers (TECs). While Czochralski method of pulling from the melt with feeding from the liquid phase being used, these highly efficient single crystal materials give a thermoelectric figure of merit of 2.5 to 3.2x10-3 K-1 in the temperature range of 150 to 300 K. Test results for a large variety of single crystal and multi-stage TECs are presented. The effect of decreasing the thermoelement length on the cooler performance is discussed

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